In May, 1918, the Turkish troops invaded Eastern Armenia. On May 15, they captured Alexandrapol, and on May 21, the station and the village of Sardarapat. The battles went in three directions: Sardarapat, Bash-Aparan and Gharakilisa. The Battle of Sardarapat began on May 22. All Armenian people rose to defend their Motherland and Yerevan.
On May 22-26, at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Turkish army of 15 000 soldiers retreated to Alexandrapol. On May 23-27, the Turks were defeated in Bash-Aparan, and on May 24-28, in Gharakilisa. The victories of the Armenian people in May made it possible to restore the Armenian statehood after a long break. Turkey recognized the independence of Armenia by the Armenian-Turkish Peace Treaty signed in Batum, on June 4, 1918.
On May 28, 1918, the National Council in Tiflis proclaimed itself the supreme and the only power of the Armenian provinces. The parliament and the government of the Republic of Armenia were formed, and Hovhannes Kajaznuni was appointed Prime Minister. Yerevan was proclaimed the capital of Armenia. During the two and a half years of its existence, the Republic had two parliaments and four governments.
In 1919, local authorities were formed through elections. The armed forces were reshaped, following the Russian Army structure. A law was adopted, recognizing Armenian as the state language. State symbols ‒ the flag, state emblem and hymn – were introduced, and state and national-religious holidays were established.
The Exhibition presents:
- schematic maps of the heroic battles in May, among them the original map drawn by Hovhannes Baghramian, a battle participant
- list of the Armenian military units of the Battle of Sardarapat and their commanders, made by lieutenant M. Manaserian
- photographs and personal belongings of the commanders of military units: generals T. Nazarbekian and M. Silikian, colonels D. Bek-Pirumian and P. Bek- Pirumian, also A. Manukian who led the defence of the rear and Yerevan
- group photographs of the participants of the battles and specimens of the used weapons.
- the governing bodies and statehood symbols of the First Republic, its first laws with factual data and other exhibits
- the first tricolour flag of the Republic of Armenia, and the photograph of the state emblem (authors: Al. Tamanian and H. Kojoyan)
- materials, representing the foreign relations of the Republic of Armenia, with the photographs of the first ambassadors
- banknotes and stamps of the Republic of Armenia, which were issued in London
- the text of the Peace Treaty of Sèvres (with a map of Armenia), according to which a United and Independent Armenia was to be set up, with an access to the Black Sea and a territory of 160 000 sq. km.